Hand-raising handbook
index

8 JAN 2021

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Why calves become orphans

Mother killed, calf injured and abandoned eg caught in snare, separated from herd due to unknown reasons.

 

Calf mortality

What is reported in literature

 

Why this manual is needed

Lots of good info but not all in one place that is easily accessible info needed

Poor survival reported in literature

Intent to have a practical guide for vets, vet techs, mahouts, caregivers, or anyone else involved with elephant hand-rearing; So we have tried to use clear and succinct language and have defined medical terms that may not be familiar to all.

 

Disposition

  • Release to wild

  • Keep in captivity

 

CHAPTER 1. FIRST ENCOUNTER

  • Quick health assessment

  • Guidelines to attempt re-uniting with the herd (Calf has best chance of survival if it can be reunited with its mother)

  • Transport to care facility

  • Fostering (If has own young calf < 2 may not accept or if does may not produce enough milk for two)

 

CHAPTER 2. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND PREVENTIVE HEALTHCARE

  • Introduction

  • Physical examination

  • Daily / Weekly Monitoring

  • Training for Veterinary Procedures

  • Blood collection

  • Fecal examination

  • Vaccinations

 

CHAPTER 3. THE NURSERY AREA     

  • Location

  • Enclosure

  • Staffing

  • Supplies and Equipment

  • Cleanliness

  • Need for statement re: Nursery “herd”? 

 

 

CHAPTER 4. FEEDING: MILK

  • Supplies and Equipment

  • Hygiene

  • Record keeping

  • Methods of administration

  • Cautions re aspiration

  • Colostrum – elephant and using commercial products from other species

 

  • Feeding schedule

    • Feeding amount and frequency in mother-reared calves

    • Frequency and quantity in orphan

    •  

  • Artificial milking

    • Stimulating milk production in surrogates

    • Milking the dam – see Emanuelson in EBMS

 

  • Milk composition changes during stages of lactation

 

  • Composition of milk

    • Solids/water

    • Carbohydrates

    • Proteins

    • Fats

    • Ash/minerals

    • Vitamins

    • Energy

    •  

  • Formulas

    • Home-made

    • Commercial formulas (and sources?)

    • Comparison of formulas

 

CHAPTER 5. DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY / GUT FLORA

  • Meconium will usually pass within 7 hours and no more than 48 h or may be a problem

  • Rate of passage

  • Feces appearance

  • Microbiome?

 

 

CHAPTER 6. FEEDING: INTRODUCING SOLID FOODS

  • Acceptable food items

  • Types

  • Proportions (e.g. fruit to veggie)

  • Sources

 

 

CHAPTER 7. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

  • Developmental stages

  • Monitoring growth / growth curves – see Olsen 2004 Weaning chapter

  • Weaning

 

CHAPTER 8. SOCIAL NEEDS AND BEHAVIOR

  • Behavior

  • Mother

  • Calf

  • Surrogates

  • Allomothering

  • Cross-fostering / adoption

  • Refer to Chapter 3 here about usefulness of a “crèche” group?

 

 

CHAPTER 9. MEDICAL PROBLEMS AND TREATMENT

  • Introduction

  • Medical equipment and supplies

  • Anorexia (loss of appetite)

  • Anthrax ???

  • Bloat

  • Constipation

  • Dehydration

  • Dental problems

  • Diarrhea and GI problems

  • Dry skin

  • Elephant Endotheliotopic Herpes Virus (EEHV)

  • Failure of passive transfer of antibodies

  • Fractures

  • Hemorrhagic septicemia ??

  • Metabolic bone disease

  • Parasites

  • Rabies

  • Sepsis (septicemia, systemic infection)

  • Sunburn

  • Umbilical hernia

  • Umbilical infection

  • Wounds (including snares) / prosthetic devices?

 

 

CHAPTER 10. Medical Procedures

  • Anesthesia and sedation

  • Basic supplies and equipment – better in Appendix?

  • Blood collection

  • Blood culture

  • Culture

  • Enemas

  • Fecal analysis

  • Feeding tubes

  • Fluid therapy  - IV / rectal

  • Hematology (include manual platelet count for EEHV)

  • IM injections

  • IV injections

  • IV catheters

  • Oxygen therapy

  • Plasma collection – ref EEHV

  • Postmortem exam

  • Urine analysis

  • Vaccinations

 

CHAPTER 11. TRAINING FOR VETERINARY PROCEDURES

 

 

CHAPTER 12. GUIDELINES FOR RELEASE TO THE WILD (reference Chatchote doc)

 

 

+/- LITERATURE CITED (in each chapter but also include all at the end?)_

 

 

 

APPENDICES

 

Care forms

        Physical exam – long and short

        Body score

+/- Daily Elephant Calf Healthcare Checklist for Mahouts and Caregivers

        Milk/Formula/Diet intake

        Fecal consistency

        Growth

Reference blood values

Drug doses

EEHV Asian manual

How to build a scale platform

Links to other resources

Contacts for help

Suppliers

 

 

Potential Reviewers

Khyne U Mar

Sonja - Singapore

Willem - Netherlands

Bhaskar – India

KK Sarma? - India

Chatchote - Thailand

Khyne - Myanmar

Michele Miller?

Dr. Yeow