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Hand-raising orphans



Why calves become orphans

Mother killed, calf injured and abandoned eg caught in snare, separated from herd due to unknown reasons.


Calf mortality

What is reported in literature


Why this manual is needed

Lots of good info but not all in one place that is easily accessible info needed

Poor survival reported in literature

Intent to have a practical guide for vets, vet techs, mahouts, caregivers, or anyone else involved with elephant hand-rearing; So we have tried to use clear and succinct language and have defined medical terms that may not be familiar to all.



o   Release to wild

o   Keep in captivity

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