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Injection techniques

Hand injections

Intramuscular injection:

Subcutaneous injection:

Intravenous injection:

Epidural injection:

An epidural injection in elephants is recommended when a vaginal vestibulotomy  is performed in order to reduce tail movements of the elephant and provide additional analgesia in the perineal region.


  • Restrain the elephant as appropriate in a chute and sedated if necessary.

  • Disinfect the injection site. 

  • Move the tail up and down to determine the position of the most mobile intercoccygeal space. 

  • Inject local anaesthetic (2% Lidocaine) into the skin over the injection site.

  • Palpate the intercoccygeal space wearing a sterile glove and insert the needle (14 gauge, 3 inch) at approximately a 60 - 70 degree angle cranially.

  • The epidural space is about 6.5 cm below the skin surface.

  • Inject Lidocaine: 30 ml was sufficient to produce tail relaxation in a 3,000 kg elephant, and the elephant remained standing. 

Remote injections

Blow dart injection:

Jam-stick injection:

Gun-dart injection:

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