Lameness

Although lameness is considered the most important clinical sign of musculoskeletal disorders in other species, elephants have been shown to rarely express distinct lameness patterns. This might even be the case in severe lesions. Nevertheless, elephants do express specific alterations in their posture indicative of musculoskeletal disorders. These alterations are visually perceptible for the experienced observer (Schiffmann 2021).

African elephant displaying signs of lameness